Lucknow is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. It is the fourteenth-most populous city and the twelfth-most populous urban agglomeration of India. Lucknow has always been a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub, and the seat of power of Nawabs in the 18th and 19th centuries. It continues to be an important centre of governance, administration, education, commerce, aerospace, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, culture, tourism, music and poetry.
The city stands at an elevation of approximately 123 metres (404 ft) above sea level. Lucknow city had an area of 402 km2 till December 2019, when 88 villages were added to the municipal limits and the area increased to 631 km2. Bounded on the east by Barabanki, on the west by Unnao, on the south by Raebareli and in the north by Sitapur and Hardoi, Lucknow sits on the northwestern shore of the Gomti River. As of 2008, there were 110 wards in the city. Morphologically, three clear demarcations exist: The Central business district, which is a fully built up area, comprises Hazratganj, Aminabad and Chowk. A middle zone surrounds the inner zone with cement houses while the outer zone consists of slums
The history of Lucknow can be traced back to the ancient times of the Suryavanshi Dynasty. It is said that Lakshmana, who was the brother of Lord Rama, laid the foundation of the ancient city. This was near the Gomti River on an elevated piece of land. It was then called Lakshmanpur.
From 1350 onwards, Lucknow and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire,
Nawabs of Awadh, the British East India Company and the British Raj.
For about eighty-four years (from 1394 to 1478), Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Humayun made it a part of the Mughal Empire around 1555. Emperor Jahangir (1569–1627) granted an estate in Awadh to a favoured nobleman, Sheikh Abdul Rahim, who later built Machchi Bhawan on this estate. It later became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzadas, controlled the region.
The Nawabs of Lucknow, in reality, the Nawabs of Awadh, acquired the name after the reign of the third Nawab when Lucknow became their capital. The city became North India’s cultural capital, and its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under their dominion, music and dance flourished, and construction of numerous monuments took place. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chota Imambara, and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the Nawab’s enduring legacies is the region’s syncretic Hindu–Muslim culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb.
The Gomti River, Lucknow’s chief geographical feature, meanders through the city and divides it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions. Situated in the middle of the Indus-Gangetic Plain, the city is surrounded by rural towns and villages: the orchard town of Malihabad, Kakori, Mohanlalganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat and Itaunja. To the east lies Barabanki, to the west Unnao, to the south Raebareli, while to the north lie the Sitapur and Hardoi. Lucknow city is located in a seismic zone III.
The major industries in the Lucknow urban agglomeration include aeronautics, automotive, machine tools, distillery chemicals, furniture and Chikan embroidery. Lucknow is among the top cities of India by GDP. It is a centre for research and development as home to the R&D centres of the National Milk Grid of the National Dairy Development Board, the Central Institute of Medical and Aromatic Plants, the National Handloom Development Corporation and U.P. Export Corporation. Lucknow is ranked sixth in a list of the ten fastest growing job-creating cities in India according to a study conducted by Assocham Placement Pattern, Lucknow’s economy was formerly based on the tertiary sector and the majority of the workforce were employed as government servants. Large-scale industrial establishments are few compared to other northern Indian state capitals like New Delhi. The economy is growing with contributions from the fields of IT, manufacturing and processing and medical/biotechnology. Business-promoting institutions such as the CII have set up their service centres in the city. Major export items are marble products, handicrafts, art pieces, gems, jewellery, textiles, electronics, software products, computers, hardware products, apparel, brass products, silk, leather goods, glass items and chemicals. Lucknow has promoted public–private partnerships in sectors such as electricity supply, roads, expressways, and educational ventures.
MUMBAI CITY DISTRICT
Lucknow district is a district located in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. The city of Lucknow is the district headquarters and the district is part of Lucknow Division. It also is the capital of Uttar Pradesh
Located in what was historically known as the Awadh region, Lucknow has always been a multicultural place.
The Lucknow district that exists today was created by the British in 1856, upon their annexation of Oudh State. Under the Nawabs of Oudh, the area administered from Lucknow had been rather small, consisting of only the parganas immediately surrounding the city. This was known as the Huzur tehsil. The rest of the area had been part of other divisions whose headquarters lay outside the borders of the present-day district.
From 1856 until 1872, the new Lucknow district consisted of 10 parganas in 4 tehsils: Lucknow tehsil contained the 3 parganas of Lucknow, Bijnaur, and Kakori; Kursi tehsil contained the 3 parganas of Kursi, Dewa, and Mahona; Mohanlalganj tehsil contained the 2 parganas of Mohanlalganj and Nigohan; and Malihabad tehsil consisted of the 2 parganas of Malihabad and Auras-Mohan. In 1872, the first regular settlement conducted by the British was completed, and three parganas were transferred out of Lucknow district: Dewa and Kursi, the two easternmost parganas, were transferred to Barabanki district, while Auras-Mohan in the west was transferred to Unnao district. At the same time, the tehsils of Malihabad and Mahona were merged into a single entity.
The population of Lucknow Urban Agglomeration (LUA) rose above one million in 1981, while the 2001 census estimated it had risen to 2.24 million. This included about 60,000 people in the Lucknow Cantonment and 2.18 million in Lucknow city and represented an increase of 34.53% over the 1991 figure.
According to the provisional report of 2011 Census of India, Lucknow city had a population of 2,815,601, of which 1,470,133 were men and 1,345,468 women. This was an increase of 25.36% compared to the 2001 figures.
Between 1991 and 2001, the population registered growth of 32.03%, significantly lower than the 37.14% which was registered between 1981 and 1991. The initial provisional data suggests a population density of 1,815 per km2 in 2011, compared to 1,443 in 2001. As the total area covered by the Lucknow district is only about 2,528 square kilometres (976 sq mi), the population density was much than the 690 persons per km2 recorded at the state level. The Scheduled Caste population of the state represented 21.3% of the total population, a figure higher than the state average of 21.15%.
Lucknow is served by several railway stations in different parts of the city. The main long-distance railway station is Lucknow Railway Station located at Charbagh. It has an imposing structure built in 1923 and acts as the divisional headquarters of the Northern Railway division. Its neighbouring and second major long-distance railway station is Lucknow Junction railway station operated by the North Eastern Railway. The city is an important junction with links to all major cities of the state and country such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chandigarh, Nashik, Amritsar, Jammu, Chennai, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Jhansi, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Raipur and Siwan. The city has a total of fourteen railway stations. Earlier the meter-gauge services originated at Aishbagh and connected to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur.
Lucknow Metro is a rapid transit system which started its operations from 6 September 2017. Lucknow Metro system is the most-quickly built metro system in the world and most economical high-speed rapid transit system project in India. The commencement of civil works started on 27 September 2014.
In February, Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav gave the approval to set up a metro rail system for the state capital. It is divided into two corridors with the North–south corridor connecting Munshipulia to CCS International Airport and the East–west corridor connecting Charbagh Railway Station to Vasant Kunj. This will be the most expensive public transport system in the state but will provide a rapid means of mass transport to decongest traffic on city roads. Construction of the first phase will be complete by March 2017. The completion of metro rail project is the primary object of Uttar Pradesh government currently headed by the chief minister Yogi Adityanath
On 5 September 2017, Home Minister Rajnath Singh and CM Yogi Adityanath showed green flag to the Lucknow Metro.
Direct air connections are available in Lucknow to New Delhi, Patna, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Chennai, Guwahati, Jaipur, Raipur and other major cities via Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport. The airport has been ranked the second-best in the world in the small airport category. The airport is suitable for all-weather operations and provides parking facilities for up to 14 aircraft. At present Air India, Air India Express, GoAir, IndiGo, Saudi Airlines, Flydubai, Oman Air and Vistara operate domestic and international flights to and from Lucknow. Covering 1,187 acres (480 ha), with Terminal 1 for international flights and Terminal 2 for domestic flights, the airport can handle Boeing 767 to Boeing 747-400 aircraft allowing significant passenger and cargo traffic.
A market that’s seen the illustrious times of the Nawabs, Aminabad Market is the busiest and the oldest shopping hub of Lucknow. It is a delight for bargain shopping. You get every kind of consumer items here, from home utilities, utensils, chikan sarees, men’s wear, food items, books, artificial jewellery to local handicrafts.
Madan Sarees, Dupatta Mahal, Sargodha Cloth House, Om Prakash Seth, are the oldest shops here. While shopping, drop into some eateries and bakeries like Wahid Biryani and Alamgir, Kalika Chat House. The market remains closed on Thursdays.
SHOPPING MALL (sahara ganj MALL)
Sahara Ganj is an iconic mall, as it is said to be the first shopping mall in Lucknow. It is a large, five-storey mall, covering an area of around 5,25,000 square feet, housing many clothing brands like Manyavar, Peter England, Arrow, and even high-end fashion brands like Forever 21. It has supermarkets like Big Bazaar and Pantaloons for some pocket-friendly shopping. And while you’re out there shopping, you might get hungry. So don’t be surprised to find a food court, with outlets of Domino’s, Pizza Hut, Moti Mahal Deluxe, etcetera. For entertainment purposes, you can go, watch a movie in PVR. Or, you could try your hand at the games in the Gaming Zone! There’s just so much to do! This mall should be on your bucket list!
PVR – Saharaganj Mall, Hazratganj is a popular theatre located at Saharaganj Mall, 4th Floor, Shahnajaf Road, Opposite Maruti Sizuki Showroom, Hazratganj, Central, Lucknow. PVR – Saharaganj Mall, Hazratganj has 4 screens. Movies now showing at PVR – Saharaganj Mall, Hazratganj are NONE. Facilities available at PVR – Saharaganj Mall, Hazratganj are Parking Facility, Dolby Atmos and Food And Beverage.
Claimed to be the largest park in Asia, Janeshwar Mishra Park houses expansive green gardens interspersed by water bodies that have abundant varieties of fish and paved trails for us, to stroll comfortably. To top it all, the open-air gyms and children’s area present here, makes it a treasured spot for the city dwellers.
Sahara Hospital was the project of Sahara India Medical Institute Limited, a subsidiary of Sahara Prime City Limited. It sits on a 27-acre (11 ha) campus at Gomti Nagar, in the neighbourhood of Lucknow. It was designed by Mumbai-based architect Hafeez Contractor. The construction contract for the hospital building (set at ₹490 million (US$6.9 million)) was given to Larsen & Toubro. The total cost of the project was ₹4 billion (US$56 million), which also included cost of medical equipment. Rising 70 metres (230 ft) and 19 floors, it was the tallest building in Lucknow when it opened.
The hospital was inaugurated on 12 February 2009 by Chhabi Roy, mother of founder and chairman of the Sahara India Pariwar Subrata Roy.