Nellore is a city located on the banks of Penna River, in Nellore district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It serves as the headquarters of the district, as well as Nellore mandal and Nellore revenue division. It is the fourth most populous city in the state. It is at a distance of 700 km from Visakhapatnam and about 170 km north of Chennai, Tamil Nadu and also about 380 km east-northeast of Bangalore, Karnataka. Nellore City accounts for 65% of the urban population of Nellore District.
Nellore had been under the rule of Mauryas, Satavahanas, Cholas, Pallavas, Pandyas, Kharavela of Chedi dynasty, Kakatiyas, Eastern Gangas of Kalinga Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Arcot Nawabs and other dynasties.
Nellore was ruled by Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty in the 3rd century BCE. Nellore was conquered by the rulers of the Pallava Dynasty and it was under their rule till the 6th century CE, subsequently the Chola rulers ruled Nellore for a long period of time. The Cholas met their decline in the 13th Century CE. Tamil inscriptions indicate that it formed part of Chola kingdom till their decline in the thirteenth century CE. It later became a part of Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Sultanate of Golconda, Mughal Empire and Arcot Nawabdom. In the 18th century, Nellore was taken over by the British from the Arcot Nawabs and was part of the Madras Presidency of British India.
The city had an important role in the emergence of the Telugu language and the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Potti Sriramulu, who fasted until death for the formation of Andhra Pradesh, hailed from Nellore.
Nellore is located at 14.44°N 79.98°E.It has an average elevation of 18 metres (59 ft).
The climate of Nellore city can be placed under Tropical Savanna climate category according to Köppen climate classification which has hot and humid summers and warm winters. April and May are the hottest months and the hot conditions generally last until the end of the June. December, January and February are the coolest months. As the Bay of Bengal is at a distance of 24 kilometres (15 mi) from the city, the sea breeze renders the climate of the city moderate both in winter and in summer. Humidity level in the city is high due to its proximity to the coast. Nellore does not receive the south-west monsoon. Rainfall in Nellore occurs between the months of October and December due to the north-east monsoon. This period gives about 60 percent of the city’s annual rainfall. Cyclones are common in the city during this period, causing floods and havoc.
The maximum temperature is 36 to 46 °C (97 to 115 °F) during summer and the minimum temperature is 23 to 25 °C (73 to 77 °F) during winter. The rainfall ranges from 700 to 1,000 mm (28 to 39 in) through South West and North East Monsoons. Nellore is subject both to droughts and to floods based on the seasons.
As of 2011[needs update] census, Nellore city had a population of 505,258. The average literacy rate stands at 83.59% (male 87.53%; female 79.52%) with 387,192 literates, significantly higher than the state average of 73.00%.The expanded city population post merger of 15 gram panchayats into Nellore Municipal Corporation stands at 631,791
There are various theories linked to the origin of the name “Nellore”. A mythological story from Sthala Purana depicts, a lingam in the form of a stone under nelli tree (“Nelli” stands for emblica Tree in Tamil). The place gradually became Nelli-ooru (ooru generally stands for place in Telugu) and then to present day Nellore. Another explanation is that the town got its name from the extensive cultivation of paddy in and around it (“Nell” meaning paddy in Telugu). The Gazetteer of the Nellore District considers the latter the more plausible etymology.
Nellore Municipal Corporation was constituted as a municipality on 1 November 1866 by the Madras District Municipality Act. It was upgraded to corporation on 18 October 2004 and has a jurisdictional area of 150.48 km2 (58.10 sq mi) with 54 wards. In 2013, fifteen gram panchayats namely, Allipuram, Ambhapuram, Buja Buja Nellore, Chinthareddypalem, Gudupallipadu, Gundlapalem, Kallurupalli, Kanaparthypadu, Kodurupadu, Narayanareddypeta, Navalakulathota, Nellore Bit-I (Kothuru), Peddacherukuru, Pottipalem, Vavilatepadhu were merged into the municipal corporation. Present mayor of the city is Abdul Aziz.
The city is one among the 31 cities in the state to be a part of water supply and sewerage services mission known as Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).
Nellore is represented by Nellore City assembly constituency and Nellore Rural assembly constituency for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Anil Kumar Poluboina is the present MLA of Nellore City assembly constituency representing YSRCP. Kotamreddy Sridhar Reddy is the present MLA of Nellore Rural assembly constituency representing YSRCP.
The residents of the city are generally referred as Nelloreans. The Rottela Panduga (Roti festival) is an annual urs event celebrated at the Bara Shaheed Dargah (shrine of twelve martyrs) on the banks of Swarnala Cheruvu.The event got its name after the practice of exchanging flat breads and attracts visitors from all religious backgrounds every year and from all over the country and also from foreign countries.
Chepala Pulusu (fish curry) is a non-vegetarian recipe of the Nellore district, prepared from Korramennu.Malai Kaja Nellore Famous Sweet is a local sweet made from maida, milk and sugar.
Local transport in the city include, two, three and four wheelers. Of these, privately operated auto rickshaws accounts to around 7,000, dominating most part of the city for local commuting. Nellore bus station of the city operates district and long-distance services.Nellore is classified as an A grade and Adarsh station in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.The city also has three small railway stations namely, Nellore South, Vedayapalem.and Padugupadu railway station The Southern Railway operates MEMUs regularly for commuting between Nellore and Chennai Central. There is also a proposal to build a no frills airport for the city.
The city has a total road length of 1,189.95 km (739.40 mi). The proposed Outer Ring Road, existing arterial and internal roads helps reduce traffic congestion.The city is connected with major National highways such as, National Highway 16, a part of Asian Highway 45 and Golden Quadrilateral, bypasses the city.
The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu
Zaminryot newspaper, established in 1930, and Lawyer weekly newspaper are based out of Nellore. In addition, Eenadu, Vaartha AndhraJyothy and Sakshi newspapers are also printing local editions in Nellore.